The Neural Basis of Addiction: A Pathology of Motivation and Choice (2005)

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For the motivated physician who desires an overview of neural-cellular adaptation that occurs with addiction. Comprehensive and dense. The authors, Peter W. Kalivas, Ph.D. and Nora D. Volkow, M.D., provide a wonderful, albeit complex, overview of the brain pathways involved in motivation, reward and the initiation of addiction. Includes presentation of cellular adaptations associated with addiction. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162:1403-1413.

Neuroscience of Addiction (1998)

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This paper by George F. Koob and Floyd E. Bloom which appeared in Neuron explains some of the neurobiology of addiction, focusing on the disruption to the stress hormones. They discuss animal models for reward, sensitization, motivation, withdrawal, craving and relapse. One of several examples of the research base that informs our daily work in addiction treatment and form a powerful argument for stability and balance as a therapeutic goal. Neuron 1998; 21:467-476.

Drug-Dependence‚ÄďA Chronic Medical Illness

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Pivotal article by Tom McLellan, David Lewis, Charles O'brien, Herbert Kleber examining evidence and compares drug and alcohol dependence to other chronic medical illnesses, such as hypertension and asthma. Provides convincing evidence that physicians can adapt the patient care and monitoring strategies used in treatment of other chronic diseases to the treatment of chemical dependence. JAMA 2000; 284: 1689-1695.
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